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Oral | Posters


Oral Presentations

 

 

Day: 2, Session: 2, Talk: 2

Female Form Alternation in American Cambarid Species

Tadashi Kawai

American Cambarid species are the most diverse group in the Infraorder Astacidea The group shares a unique key character state, Form Alternation (or Cyclic Dimorphism) of adult males. Form Alternation of isometric and allometric character growth is related to seasonal breeding. In summer Form I males capable of breeding have larger chelae, larger hooks on the ischia of their pereiopods, and cornified terminal elements of their 1st pleopods. They consequently molt to a non-breeding stage (Form II), which has smaller chelae, smaller hooks on the ischia of their pereiopods, and un-cornified terminal elements of their 1st pleopods. Adult Form II males molt back to Form I males for the next breeding season which normally runs in a yearly cycle. Recently it has been reported that Form Alternation also occurs in female members of Cambarus and Faxonius. Form I females display wider abdomens than same-size Form II females, and their annulus ventrali have un-cornified and a more convoluted crest along the longitudinal sinus, with a median sinus that reaches the caudal margin. The author visited the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History to access Hobbs' collections. Museum specimens of adult females of four Procambarus and three Cambarellus species were examined to compare abdomen width and morphology of the annulus ventralus between breeding and non-breeding season specimens. Female Form Alternation (as listed above) was observed in all four Procambarus species; Procambarus allenii, P. clarkii, P. fallax, and P. pallidus. However, Form I females do not show wider abdomens than same-size Form II females. Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus patzcurensis, and Cambarellus zempoalensis did not show form alteration, and it is concluded that Cambarellus species do not undergo Form Alternation as member of Cambarus, Faxonius, and Procambarus do.

 

 

Day: 2, Session: 3, Talk: 3

Modeling Effects of Crayfish Invasion and Drought on Crayfish Population Dynamics

Leah Bayer, Robert Fournier and DANIEL D. MAGOULICK

Crayfish play a crucial ecological role and are often considered a keystone species within freshwater ecosystems. However, North American crayfish species face several environmental and ecological threats including limited natural ranges, invasive species, and intensified drought. Demographic models can allow examination of population dynamics of a targeted species under a wide variety of disturbance scenarios. Here, we model the population dynamics of crayfish species with varied theoretical life histories and assess their responses to biological invasions and drought. We used RAMAS-Metapop to construct stage-based demographic metapopulation models parameterized using vital rates from established literature sources. Our models explored the population viability of four theoretical species under eleven disturbance scenarios and calculated estimates of terminal extinction risk, median time to quasi-extinction, and metapopulation occupancy. Our models indicate that populations respond differentially to disturbance based on life history. However, both r- and K-selected species appear to be highly susceptible to decline when faced with the additive effects of reduced carrying capacity due to invasion and reduced vital rates due to drought. By constructing models that explore a broad array of life histories and disturbance regimes, we hope to provide managers with tools to develop generalized, widely-applicable conservation strategies.

 

 

Day: 2, Session: 4, Talk: 3

The Life History of Cambarus veteranus Faxon 1914 (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in the Clear Fork of the Guyandotte River, WV, USA

NICOLE SADECKY and Zachary J. Loughman

Cambarus veteranus Faxon, 1914 (Guyandotte River Crayfish), is an endangered, narrow endemic, residing in just two streams in the southern coalfields of West Virginia. A life history study was initiated for C. veteranus in Clear Fork of the Guyandotte River, Wyoming County, West Virginia to gather basic life history information needed for future conservation efforts. Monthly collections began June 2017 and continued through May 2018. Two 400-meter stream reaches were designated as life history study sites with two different 100-meter sub-reaches sampled each month. Specimens, regardless of species, were collected, sexed, and molt stage determined. Preliminary results suggest an importance of water temperature on crayfish capture with December yielding considerably higher capture rates of C. veteranus in comparison to other species collected. Form I males are ever present and reach their highest density in early winter. Pre-glaired females reached their highest densities in October and December with glaired females present nearly every month. A single ovigerous female was collected, bearing just two stage 4 juveniles, during the November sampling event. Three ovigerous females bearing stage 4 juveniles were subsequently collected during the March sampling event, thus suggesting overwintering with young. Molting events were observed between September and October with pre-molting individuals present in September and freshly molted individuals present in October. Additionally, molting events occurred in March with pre-molting individuals present as well as freshly molted individuals and in May with the majority of the population observed in the soft or fresh molt state. Providing life history information for C. veteranus will assist in conservation efforts and possible repatriation of C. veteranus in the future. Additionally, life history information for C. veteranus can be compared to closely related species that are often used as a surrogate for C. veteranus in captive rearing studies.

 

 

Day: 2, Session: 4, Talk: 6

100+ Years Since Ortmann: Conservation and Distribution of Crayfishes of the Upper Ohio River Basin in Pennsylvania

TANYA N. KHAN, David A. Lieb and Zachary J. Loughman

Crayfishes in North America face numerous anthropogenic stressors such as urbanization, extractive industries, and introduction of non-native crayfish species. In 1906, Arnold Ortmann published his survey of crayfishes of Pennsylvania, where he found only native populations. Comparing Ortmann’s work to more recent investigations of southeastern Pennsylvania crayfishes has revealed the presence of five non-native species which have destabilized historic populations. Given these findings, there are reasons to be concerned about the status of crayfish populations in the Upper Ohio River Basin in Pennsylvania, where three native species historically occur: Cambarus carinirostris (Rock Crawfish), Cambarus robustus (Big Water Crayfish), and Faxonius obscurus (Allegheny Crayfish). The goal of this study was to assess changes in crayfish fauna of western Pennsylvania since the 1906 survey. In addition, we set out to determine if abiotic factors influence presence of the three native species. Using standardized sampling of 10 seine hauls/site, we conducted surveys of 256 sites in the Upper Ohio River drainage, with a focus on collection of epigean species. Site covariates including physiochemical and physical habitat data (utilizing the Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index, QHEI) were obtained at 175 sampled sites. Presence and absence data of each species were analyzed using logistic regression modeling to fit single covariate or additive-effects models of stream habitat, water quality, or presence/absence of other crayfish species. Crayfishes were found at 79% of 102 historical sites and 97% of 163 new sites. To date, only one non-native population of Faxonius rusticus (Rusty Crayfish) has been discovered in the North Branch of Slippery Rock Creek. These collections represent approximately 60% of the survey, with remaining collections to occur in 2018. Model results show correlations of: Faxonius obscurus presence to a global model (containing 8 covariates), temperature + conductivity, and temperature + pH; Cambarus carinirostris presence to temperature + substrate; and Cambarus robustus presence to pool quality + substrate and temperature + substrate. Preliminary data suggests that crayfish fauna in western Pennsylvania has remained moderately stable over the last century, though the presence of a non-native crayfish population indicates the need for continued monitoring. Efforts in Pennsylvania must focus on prevention and management of the spread of non-native species to preserve the native crayfish populations that remain.

 

 

Day: 3, Session: 4, Talk: 4

Effect of an Analgesic at Environmental Concentration on Crayfish Locomotion and Cardiac Physiology

FILIP LOŽEK, Iryna Kuklina, Tomáš Randák, Pavel Kozák, Petr Císař and Miloš Buřič

There is an increasing evidence on ecological and biological impacts of pharmaceutical pollution (e.g., antidepressants, anxiolytics, psycholeptics and analgesics) on aquatic organisms. Tramadol is an example of opioid analgesic frequently used treating chronic and acute pain. In order to investigate long-time effects of tramadol at environmentally relevant of 1 ?g L-1 on signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus as an important participent of the predator-prey relationships, cardiac activity (heart rate, HR) and behavior (locomotion) were evaluated under repeated stimuli of a natural stressor (i.e., hemolymph) as an odor of injured conspecific 4 times within 3 weeks of tramadol exposure and 4 times within following 2 weeks of depuration period. For evaluation of crayfish primary physiological and ethological reactions to the stressor, the data within half an hour prior to and half an hour post stressor addition were used. A significant increase of the HR after stressor application was found, as well as there was a significant difference between tramadol free (control) and tramadol exposed groups. However there was no statistical difference in the locomotion of both control and exposed crayfish recorded before and after stressor application. According to the discovered shifts in crayfish cardiac physiology under long-term exposure to tramadol at non-lethal concentration, the significance of these shifts will need further detailed investigations.

 

 

Day: 5, Session: 2, Talk: 1

Crayfish Chimney Function: Airflow, Oxygen, and Pheromones

JAMES A. STOECKEL, Hisham Abdelrahman, Mary Szoka, David Blersch and Jeremiah Davis

Most burrowing crayfish build chimneys. However, chimneys are often present only seasonally, located only over a single burrow opening, or completely absent, suggesting that they are periodically constructed for specific function and purpose(s). In this study we use a combination of field and wind-tunnel experiments to investigate function and purpose of Cambarus c.f. polychromatus chimneys. Field trials with smoke bombs and natural burrows showed that air flow is a major outcome of chimney construction. In a typical burrow complex, smoke was drawn in through three non-chimney openings, traveled ~0.5 m underground to the groundwater level, and then back up to the surface and exited through the chimney. Smoke was not drawn through the burrow when the chimney was removed. Chimneys appear to drive airflow through burrows by creating temperature differentials with non-chimney openings, and/or pressure differentials related to wind blowing across chimney and non-chimney entrances (Bernouli’s Principle). Wind tunnel trials with model burrows showed that air velocity through burrows was highest when chimneys were upwind of chimneyless openings. Air velocity through burrows also increased with increasing chimney height and increasing wind speed. Ongoing field studies suggest that need for increased oxygen is not likely the primary purpose driving crayfish to build chimneys to draw air through burrows. Individuals that were freshly molted or brooding, representing two life-history stages that require the most oxygen, were only found in plugged and chimneyless burrows, respectively. Alternatively, based on results of this and previous studies, we hypothesize that an important outcome of increased airflow through and out the burrows is dispersal of pheromones to facilitate intraspecific communication between adults during the reproductive season, and subsequent recruitment of young to conspecific burrow colonies.

 

 

Day: 5, Session: 2, Talk: 4

Using Crayfish as a Bio-indicator – Practical Experience from a Brewery Factory

PAVEL KOZÁK, Viktoria Shchennikova, Filip Ložek, Iryna Kuklina, Michal Vold?ich, Roman Dedic and Petr Císa?

We operated our patented non-invasive monitoring system using crayfish as a bio-indicators to control the water quality at the brewery factory. The system is based on monitoring of etho-physiological status of crayfish combining analysis of the heart rate and detection of movement as basic parameters. Monitoring of cardiac activity is done with the aid of a non-invasive sensor connecting crayfish by a flexible wire to the measuring unit and the locomotion is registered by cameras that enable complex analysis of the data by a software developed particularly for this purpose. The system was established in the water treatment facility of the factory in spring 2016. The period from February to August 2017 was precisely analyzed with the focus on the effect of water hygienic treatment with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on crayfish heart rate and their subsequent mortality. Adult individuals of signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, were kept separately in flow through aquariums, placed following the water treatment device producing ClO2 in concentration from 0.01 to 0.29 mg·L-1. Observed crayfish response to disinfectant varied among specimens that could be explained by different physiological conditions and individual reaction. Diurnal rhythm of some crayfish was disturbed even at lowest concentrations of chlorine dioxide (0.01-0.2 mg·L-1), that resulted in interruption of circadian cardiac and locomotor activity, while higher concentrations (? 0.2 mg·L-1) affected all animals and in addition to that, mortality significantly increased. The highest concentrations (0.2-0.29 mg·L-1) were observed 28 times in total during 202 days of monitoring, which resulted in 25 mortality cases occurred several days after exposure. In average, mortalities of crayfish occurred 3-4 weeks after stocking to the experimental system. Possible lethal concentration of ClO2, which caused animal mortality, exceeded 0.2 mg·L-1. Results suggested that crayfish exposure to ClO2, obviously, negatively affect their physiological processes; however, further studies are needed to examine specific effects of chlorine dioxide on internal organs of crayfish. Also, the results can serve the background data for an efficient crayfish application as biological indicators of appropriate disinfection at the water treatment and supply facilities.

 

 

Day: 5, Session: 4, Talk: 1

Origin and Speciation of the Marbled Crayfish

FRANK LYKO

Marbled crayfish are a globally expanding population of parthenogenetically reproducing freshwater crayfish. They are closely related to the sexually reproducing slough crayfish, Procambarus fallax, which is native to the southeastern United States. However, reproductive incompatibility and substantial genetic differences suggest that the marbled crayfish should be considered an independent species (Procambarus virginalis). We have recently established a draft assembly of the marbled crayfish genome. We are now using comparative whole-genome sequencing to clarify the origin and speciation of marbled crayfish and I will discuss our available data.


 

Poster Presentations

 

 

POSTER 52

History of Spring River Crayfish (Faxonius roberti) Collections in the Strawberry River, Arkansas

BRIAN K. WAGNER

The Spring River Crayfish (Faxonius roberti) was recently distinguished from the Coldwater Crayfish (Faxonius eupunctus). It encompasses former F. eupunctus range in the Spring and Strawberry river drainages of Missouri and Arkansas. The species was first detected in the Strawberry River basin in a tributary stream in 1972 and the main river in 1974, neither of which have yielded specimens in more recent sampling efforts. The next reported observation was in 2006 from the main stem at a low water crossing 17.6 km downstream. A 2010-11 range-wide study of F. eupunctus only collected 4 individuals from one site in the basin using a quantitative kick-seine method that was much more effective in the other basins, suggesting a much lower abundance in the Strawberry. Additional effort in 2011 utilizing snorkeling and hand capture of crayfish was able to extend the documented range downstream an additional 14.3 km from the 2006 collection. Beginning in 2016 efforts began to attain a more detailed understanding of the species' range in this river by kayaking between access points and conducting snorkel searches by 2-3 divers at every 2nd to 3rd riffle encountered. These efforts documented 8 additional sites, including one 9 km upstream of the 2006 site. In 2017 efforts continued by making kayak trips above and below the area surveyed in 2016, requiring kayaking back to the put-in point at the end of the survey. In the upstream collection this included searching an additional 2 km above the site of the 1974 collection, but did not locate any occupied sites in this direction. Downstream searches were more productive, extending the occupied stream reach by 17.1 km. Combined this documents that F. roberti currently occupies at minimum 15 sites over a 40.4 km section of the Strawberry River.

 

 

POSTER 54

Crayfishes of the Potomac River Basin in Pennsylvania

AUDREY M. SYKES, David A. Lieb and Zachary J. Loughman

Arnold Ortmann was the first zoologist to critically review the crayfishes of Pennsylvania in the late 1800’s. Resultant of his work, Ortmann published The Crawfishes of Pennsylvania and The Crawfishes of Western Pennsylvania, two seminal works that are still relevant to this day. While extensive sampling in eastern Pennsylvania has occurred over the past two decades, western Pennsylvania’s crayfishes have received little scientific attention since Ortmann’s efforts. To rectify this dearth of information, intensive sampling of western Pennsylvania was initiated in the summer of 2014. This effort has been continuous for the past four years throughout the area using Ortmann’s work as a reference point in determining what constituted native fauna assemblage and the presence of invasive species. The ultimate goal of this project is to document both the native and invasive fauna of the Potomac Watershed in Pennsylvania. The historic faunal assemblage consists of Faxonius obscurus, Faxonius limosus, and Cambarus bartonii. Two invasive species, Faxonius rusticus and Faxonius virilis, have been reported in the Potomac Watershed downstream in Maryland. Pennsylvania’s portion of the Potomac Watershed will be sampled and reported in May of 2018. Over 100 sites will be sampled utilizing a protocol developed for the greater WPA Crayfish Survey by the West Liberty University’s Crayfish Conservation Lab. At each site, ten seine hauls will be employed in 125-meter stream reach, where the best available habitat will be surveyed first, followed by mediocre, and finally subpar habitat. In addition to a standard WPA Crayfish Datasheet, a Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index Form (QHEI) will be completed at each site. This data will be used in the determination of habitat covariates associated with each species presence in the Potomac Watershed. All animals collected will be vouchered and assessed into the West Liberty University Astacology Collection.

 

 

POSTER 58

An Assessment of Cambarus spicatus, Broad River Spiny Crayfish

RILEY W. AULICK and Zachary J. Loughman

The Broad River Spiny crayfish, Cambarus spicatus, is endemic to the Broad River and some of its tributaries. Few life history studies of C. spicatus have caused the IUCN to list it as data deficient. The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of land development on the distribution of C. spicatus. In the summer of the 2017, the West Liberty University Crayfish Conservation Research Lab surveyed the Catawba watershed in North Carolina and the Broad and Saluda watersheds in South Carolina in search of C. spicatus. A standard protocol of ten seine hauls per riffle was implemented in one hundred and twenty-three streams. Dip nets were used in addition to seines to survey the banks of the streams. ArcMap, an application of ArcGIS, was utilized by adding layers such as land cover and a buffer around each collection area which provided land type percentages for each survey site. Six individuals from four sites in North Carolina and one individual from South Carolina were collected out of a total of one-hundred and twenty-three sites. According to the models, C. spicatus was least likely to be found in areas developed for agriculture and urban development. This study provides strong evidence that land development is negatively impacting C. spicatus distribution. Additional studies are needed throughout the species range to make a final determination that land development has a negative impact on C. spicatus.

 

 

POSTER 65

Analysis of Species-environmental Relationships with Variance Partitioning and Distance-based Moran Eigenvector Maps: Application for Crayfish Distribution and Community Models

WILLIAM R. BUDNICK, Sophia I. Passy and Michael D. Kaller

Advances in numerical ecology have developed robust modeling techniques that can include spatial information in analyses of species-environmental relationships. We demonstrate how variance partitioning and distance-based Moran eigenvector maps (dbMEM) can determine which spatial scales that environmental factors structure crayfish communities and distributions. We sampled 56 streams from 5 major Louisiana river drainages from 2013-2014. Variance partitioning with redundancy analyses of environmental factors and geographic spatial distances produced a poor model fit and great environmental-spatial covariance, which confounded interpretation. However, including orthogonal spatial variables obtained from dbMEM not only improved model fits, but elucidated which environmental variables constrained community composition across spatial scales, namely among drainages (broad scale), within drainages (intermediate scale) and within stream (small scale). Presence of sand, specific conductance, and stream depth were important community drivers across scales, but presence of clay and grassy banks were more locally important. Temperature, a climatic factor, was important at broad scales. Our methods provided valuable insight into the relevant scales of environmental influence on crayfish and it is our hope that we see wider adoption of these methods for future work.

 

 

POSTER 70

Historical and Current Distribution of Western Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Primary Burrowing Crayfishes: A Century of Change or Stasis?

KATIE SCOTT, Zachary W. Dillard, Nicole M. Sadecky, Zachary J. Loughman and David A. Lieb

Astacological efforts in Pennsylvania have increased over the past decade. However, the distribution and conservation standing of Western Pennsylvania (WPA) burrowing crayfish represents the greatest void in knowledge regarding the state’s crayfish fauna. To rectify this situation, burrowing crayfish surveys were initiated across WPA in 2014-2016 using Ortmann’s (1906) historical records as a guide. 61 historic sites were resampled, and 19.6% maintained burrowing crayfish populations. 57 new sites were sampled, of which 71.9% supported burrowing crayfish populations. Overall, burrowing crayfish were detected at 44.9% of the 118 sites sampled. Ortmann documented Cambarus dubius, Cambarus monongalensis, and Cambarus thomai in WPA. All three species were found during this survey, with each taxa allied to a physiographic region. Urbanization has negatively impacted burrowing crayfish over the past century, and greenspaces proved to be important islands of habitation in the presence of urbanization. Comprehensively, our survey results indicate that WPA burrowing crayfish taxa are currently stable.

 

 

POSTER 78

Morphometric and Genetic Evidence of Population Heterogeneity in the Narrow-clawed Crayfish from Belarus

KAROLINA ŚLIWIŃSKA, Agata Mruga?a, Molotkov V. Dimitry, Radek Šanda and Anatoly V. Alekhnovich

The narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) is one of the two native European crayfish species in Belarus. Although it is a widespread species of high economic importance in this country, the recent expansion of the invasive alien crayfish species endanger the sustainability of its stocks within Belarus. Nevertheless, A. leptodactylus taxonomical status is under debate across its whole range, and it is currently considered as a species complex. Indeed, the occurrence of various morphological forms within its native range has been extensively described in early scientific literature. Moreover, based on molecular data, A. leptodactylus populations have been recently divided into European and Asian lineages; a division confirmed also by comparative morphological analyses of genetically distinct Armenian and Croatian populations. Yet detailed information on the diversity of narrow-clawed crayfish remains still scarce, especially in its native distribution range. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the diversity of A. leptodactylus within two different drainages (Baltic and Black Sea) in Belarus, based on morphological (multivariate statistics) and genetic (mtDNA COI gene) analyses. As a result of molecular analyses, the studied populations were clustered into two distinct phylogroups, corresponding to the previously published A. leptodactylus lineages. Furthermore, the multivariate morphometric analyses confirmed this clustering, and indicated that variability of studied populations is especially expressed in abdomen and cephalothorax parameters. The obtained results suggest that A. leptodactylus may have a double origin within the territory of Belarus, and therefore, provide important information for the conservation and management of this native crayfish species.


Oral Presentations from IAA22

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