IAA22 Book of Abstracts (PDF)
Meeting Program/Schedule (PDF)
LIST OF MEETING ABSTRACTS
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Day: 2, Session: 1, Talk: 3
James W. Fetzner Jr. and Eric Dorfman
Day: 2, Session: 2, Talk: 3
Cambarus aff. dubius, a New Species of Crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) Endemic to the Pre-glacial Teays River Valley in West Virginia, USA
DAVID A. FOLTZ II., Nicole M. Sadecky, Greg A. Myers, James W. Fetzner Jr., Stuart Welsh, G. Whitney Stocker, Mael G. Glon and Roger F. Thoma
A new species of crayfish, Cambarus aff. dubius, new species, is described from the preglacial Teays River Valley of Cabell, Kanawha, Lincoln, Mason, and Putnam counties, West Virginia. The species was previously considered to be part of the Cambarus dubius complex (Jezerinac et al. 1995). Loughman et al. 2015 restricted C. dubius to an orange color morph found in central and northern portions of the Allegheny Mountains and Appalachian Plateau in central West Virginia, western Maryland, and southcentral Pennsylvania. The new species described herein can be distinguished from all other members of Cambarus by a double row of cristiform tubercles on the palm, an open areola with two rows of punctations, and a consistent blue coloration.
Day: 2, Session: 2, Talk: 4
Examination of Morphological Variation in Faxonius jeffersoni Populations Indicates the Presence of a Species Complex
Zachary L. Couch
Faxonius jeffersoni Rhoades is a poorly known member of the crayfish family Cambaridae currently found in six small stream systems in Jefferson, Oldham, and Bullitt counties in Kentucky, USA. Fitzpatrick (1967) was the first to report morphological variation in gonopod sculpturing, rostrum width, and areola width between populations of F. jeffersoni found in the Beargrass and Pond Creek drainages in Jefferson and Bullitt counties. During qualitative and quantitative surveys conducted as a part of this study from 2007–2010 throughout Kentucky, examination of several morphological characteristics indicate that F. jeffersoni may represent multiple species. Examined specimens of F. jeffersoni from the Beargrass (n=48) and Goose Creek (n=15) drainages possess a gonopod with terminal elements (equal in length) that are 26.51% (0.026) and 26.62% (0.019) of the total length of the gonopod, respectively, lack a shoulder below the central projection, and typically exhibit a smooth mandibular margin. Specimens of F. jeffersoni examined from the Pond Creek (n=21) and Abrams Run (n=6) drainages are typically characterized by having a gonopod with terminal elements (the central projection being longer than the mesial process) that are 31.93% (0.019) and 31.54% (0.026) of the total length of the gonopod, respectively, possess a shoulder on the gonopod below the central projection, and typically exhibit a dentate mandibular margin. A median carina is often observed in larger specimens from the Pond Creek and Abrams Run drainages but was always found to be lacking from examined specimens from the Beargrass and Goose Creek drainages. This study reports the findings of preliminary morphometric analyses collected to clarify the taxonomic status of F. jeffersoni. Additional data collection and analysis is ongoing. However, results of morphometric analyses conducted to date suggests that the population of F. jeffersoni found in the Pond Creek and Abrams Run drainages represents a new species. As the current range of the species resides in a largely urban watershed, these initial findings are encouraged for use by resource managers to begin to reassess the conservation status of the F. jeffersoni species complex and consider its need for legal protection at the state and federal levels.
Day: 2, Session: 3, Talk: 7
Introduced and Then Almost Forgotten: Invasive Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii and Cherax quadricarinatus) in Costa Rica, Central America - Preliminary Results
JUAN CARLOS AZOFEIFA SOLANO, Ingo S. Wehrtmann, Fresia Villalobos-Rojas, Raquel Romero-Chaves and Adrián García-Rodríguez
Costa Rica harbors a remarkable diversity of freshwater native decapods, including 15 crab species (Pseudothelphusidae) and more than 21 species of caridean shrimps (Atyidae and Palaemonidae). Crayfish (Astacoidea) are not part of the native freshwater decapod fauna of the country. However, during the last century, two crayfish species were introduced: Procambarus clarkii in the Reventazón basin (Caribbean slope) in the 1970's, and Cherax quadricarinatus in the Tempisque basin (Pacific slope) in the 1980's. Both species have been recognized as invasive species in many other countries, and there is broad evidence suggesting its negative impact on native species, ecosystem functioning, and even human activities. Despite the potential threat of these crayfish species for the Costa Rican freshwater environments, very limited information is available about their occurrence in the country. Therefore, it is imperative to document the current distribution of both species and to assess their possible effects on the freshwater ecosystems in Costa Rica. We initiated a study aimed to explore the presence of these invasive crayfish species in Costa Rican streams and lakes and to provide information about their feeding ecology. So far, we have collected P. clarkii in two locations, outside the Reventazón basin were it was initially introduced, and belonging to the Pacific slope. More than 160 specimens have been analyzed, ranging in size from 6.5 to 78.1 mm total length. The predominant food item found at the stomachs was unidentified plant detritus, followed by filamentous plants, fragments of chironomid and Ephemeroptera larvae, and plastic. Our collections revealed two new locations for C. quadricarinatus in Costa Rica: one of them a stream in the Caribbean slope, and the other in the Arenal Lake, the largest reservoir in Costa Rica. The size of the collected specimens (n=7) ranged from 45.1 to 92.2 mm total length. Currently, both crayfish species inhabit both Caribbean and Pacific slopes in Costa Rica. It remains to be studied whether these species dispersed naturally or if they were locally introduced by humans. Since both species have been introduced in Costa Rica and the Central American region, the results of the study aim to raise awareness about the possible impacts of these crayfish species on the native flora and fauna of the local freshwater ecosystems, and to develop recommendations for the implementation of management programs.
Day: 3, Session: 2, Talk: 3
Crayfish, Conservation, and the Coalfields: A Case Study in the Initiation of a Crayfish Conservation Effort in North America
Zachary J. Loughman
Crayfishes have been recognized as one of the most imperiled animal groups on the planet internationally now for more than a decade. Conservation efforts in Europe and Australia have been many, and respective governments on both continents and their associated conservation agencies have been quick to recognize and protect pockets of diversity and specific highly imperiled species. In North America, most recent efforts have occurred via state level conservation agencies, which when said agencies have effective, forceful legal power, garner extensive protection for crayfish. Not all state level agencies are created equal, and when agencies lack enforcement power, crayfishes and other imperiled species can be eliminated in the names of progress. In these situations, listing as a federally imperiled species becomes paramount for protection of said taxa and their associated current and potential habitat. Cambarus callainus (Big Sandy Crayfish) and Cambarus veteranus (Guyandotte River Crayfish) are two Central Appalachian endemic species of tertiary burrowing crayfish whose populations have experienced drastic declines due to excess sedimentation and other stressors allied with extractive industries and development of riparian corridors. In 2014, a status assessment was written by the United State Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) based on work completed by astacological workers prior to that time, which indicated that water quality threats associated with coal mining, development, and off-road vehicle tourism were likely pressures to both species ability to persist in the coal fields of Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia, and in the case of C. veteranus, West Virginia only. In 2015, a range-wide assessment was completed for both species that involved visiting every historical location as well as over 100 new sample locations. Resultant of this work, current data was acquired that identified the principal current threats to both taxa had not changed, and possibly had gotten worse, which ultimately was used in addition to previous workers data to justify listing both species federally. On April 7th, 2016 C. callainus was listed as threatened and C. veteranus was listed as endangered. Beginning in the spring of 2017, an aggressive conservation campaign was initiated involving federal, nonprofit, and state level conservation agencies to gather data that ultimately will be used to conserve and protect both species. Captive rearing protocols, life history studies of C. callainus and C. veteranus as well as their crayfish associates, telemetry studies, and crayfish community analysis in addition to the creation of a response team for spills associated with extractive industry was created. In addition to research efforts, development of educational workshops for biologists working in the coalfields was also undertaken and initiated in the spring of 2016. Here in a review and case study will be provided detailing this process and the hope for its ultimate utilization in the preservation and future conservation of these highly imperiled central Appalachian endemics.
Day: 3, Session: 4, Talk: 4
Effect of an Analgesic at Environmental Concentration on Crayfish Locomotion and Cardiac Physiology
FILIP LOŽEK, Iryna Kuklina, Tomáš Randák, Pavel Kozák, Petr Císař and Miloš Buřič
There is an increasing evidence on ecological and biological impacts of pharmaceutical pollution (e.g., antidepressants, anxiolytics, psycholeptics and analgesics) on aquatic organisms. Tramadol is an example of opioid analgesic frequently used treating chronic and acute pain. In order to investigate long-time effects of tramadol at environmentally relevant of 1 ?g L-1 on signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus as an important participent of the predator-prey relationships, cardiac activity (heart rate, HR) and behavior (locomotion) were evaluated under repeated stimuli of a natural stressor (i.e., hemolymph) as an odor of injured conspecific 4 times within 3 weeks of tramadol exposure and 4 times within following 2 weeks of depuration period. For evaluation of crayfish primary physiological and ethological reactions to the stressor, the data within half an hour prior to and half an hour post stressor addition were used. A significant increase of the HR after stressor application was found, as well as there was a significant difference between tramadol free (control) and tramadol exposed groups. However there was no statistical difference in the locomotion of both control and exposed crayfish recorded before and after stressor application. According to the discovered shifts in crayfish cardiac physiology under long-term exposure to tramadol at non-lethal concentration, the significance of these shifts will need further detailed investigations.
Day: 5, Session: 2, Talk: 4
Using Crayfish as a Bio-indicator – Practical Experience from a Brewery Factory
PAVEL KOZÁK, Viktoria Shchennikova, Filip Ložek, Iryna Kuklina, Michal Vold?ich, Roman Dedic and Petr Císa?
We operated our patented non-invasive monitoring system using crayfish as a bio-indicators to control the water quality at the brewery factory. The system is based on monitoring of etho-physiological status of crayfish combining analysis of the heart rate and detection of movement as basic parameters. Monitoring of cardiac activity is done with the aid of a non-invasive sensor connecting crayfish by a flexible wire to the measuring unit and the locomotion is registered by cameras that enable complex analysis of the data by a software developed particularly for this purpose. The system was established in the water treatment facility of the factory in spring 2016. The period from February to August 2017 was precisely analyzed with the focus on the effect of water hygienic treatment with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on crayfish heart rate and their subsequent mortality. Adult individuals of signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, were kept separately in flow through aquariums, placed following the water treatment device producing ClO2 in concentration from 0.01 to 0.29 mg·L-1. Observed crayfish response to disinfectant varied among specimens that could be explained by different physiological conditions and individual reaction. Diurnal rhythm of some crayfish was disturbed even at lowest concentrations of chlorine dioxide (0.01-0.2 mg·L-1), that resulted in interruption of circadian cardiac and locomotor activity, while higher concentrations (? 0.2 mg·L-1) affected all animals and in addition to that, mortality significantly increased. The highest concentrations (0.2-0.29 mg·L-1) were observed 28 times in total during 202 days of monitoring, which resulted in 25 mortality cases occurred several days after exposure. In average, mortalities of crayfish occurred 3-4 weeks after stocking to the experimental system. Possible lethal concentration of ClO2, which caused animal mortality, exceeded 0.2 mg·L-1. Results suggested that crayfish exposure to ClO2, obviously, negatively affect their physiological processes; however, further studies are needed to examine specific effects of chlorine dioxide on internal organs of crayfish. Also, the results can serve the background data for an efficient crayfish application as biological indicators of appropriate disinfection at the water treatment and supply facilities.
Day: 5, Session: 4, Talk: 4
Detectable Effects of Impoundments on the Genetic Structure of Crayfish (Faxonius spp.) in Alabama 43-Years After Dam Closure
ZANETHIA C. BARNETT, Ryan C. Garrick, Clifford A. Ochs and Susan B. Adams
Numerous freshwater species have highly fragmented populations due to barriers created by impoundments. Dams and impoundments can prevent or reduce dispersal by physically blocking movement of individuals, reducing floodplain-river connectivity, and creating a lentic zone and tail waters unfavorable to stream organisms. The loss of longitudinal and lateral connectivity can lead to population isolation, failed recruitment, and local extinction. Using population genetic analyses, we assessed fragmentation of crayfish populations caused by impoundments in the southern Appalachians, a global center of crayfish diversity and a region with numerous impoundments. We sampled one unimpounded and two impounded streams. Six to 10 sites were sampled along each stream between 2015 and 2017, with at least four sites sampled up- and downstream of impoundments. Faxonius erichsonianus and F. validus, two of the most abundant and widespread species in the streams, were collected for genetic analyses. For all individuals, a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was amplified via polymerase chain reaction, and sequenced. Analyses of F. erichsonianus are in progress. Faxonius validus genetic diversity was lower in unimpounded than impounded streams. Local populations of F. validus up- versus downstream of impoundments differed genetically from one another, but up- and downstream populations in the unimpounded stream did not differ. Directionality of gene flow analyses indicated that in the unimpounded stream, F. validus individuals moved both up and downstream. However, as expected, this connectivity was asymmetric, with greater gene flow originating from upstream sources. Notably, whereas downstream gene flow occurred in both impounded streams, upstream gene flow occurred in only one of these streams. Overall, the magnitude of genetic connectivity among local populations was higher in unimpounded than impounded streams.
Investigating the Role of Dishonest Signals of Strength in Interspecific Fights Between Two Arizona Crayfish
ZACK A. GRAHAM and Michael J. Angilletta
Crayfish use their claws to defend territories and routinely engage in combat with competitors. Usually, the crayfish with smaller claws retreats without fighting, even though large claws are not necessarily strong ones. This dishonesty enables crayfish to obtain resources without being a true threat to opponents. The importance of dishonest signals of strength has been demonstrated in intraspecific crayfish fights. But distributions of crayfish often overlap and competition with other crayfish species is expected. Therefore, to understand the role of dishonest signaling in interspecific competition, I observed the fighting behavior of the two invasive Arizona crayfish species; the virile crayfish (Orconectes virilis) and the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). I predict that dishonest signals of strength will influence interspecific fights in a similar manner to intraspecific fights. My results demonstrate the importance of investigating dishonest signals of strength in multiple crayfish species. Additionally, I propose that future analysis of dishonest signals may have important implications regarding crayfish invasions.
Another Cautionary Tale of Numts: Multiple Different Copies of the COI Gene in the Camp Shelby Burrowing Crayfish (Fallicambarus gordoni)
JAMES W. FETZNER JR.
During a preliminary phylogeographic study conducted several years ago involving the Camp Shelby Burrowing Crayfish (Fallicambarus gordoni) it was noted that most of the generated COI barcode sequences were “messy” (i.e., contained multiple peaks at many sites along the length of the sequence), suggesting some sort of contamination was being co-amplified. This messy data was so prevalent (almost every specimen) that it ultimately eroded confidence in the base calls for the region sequenced and led to the termination of the project due to a very limited sequencing budget that had already been expended. In order to investigate the source of this contamination, COI PCR products from eight F. gordoni individuals (one from each sampled site), plus one specimen of another Fallicambarus species, were subsequently cloned. Eight individual colonies per individual were picked, amplified, and sequenced to see if the source of the contamination could be identified (i.e., as bacterial, human, pseudogene, or other). Checking the sequences using Genbank BLAST searches revealed that the sequences were most closely related to COI genes from the genus Fallicambarus, suggesting they are additional copies present within the genome, rather than contaminant DNA from an external source (i.e., bacterial). The results suggested that multiple different copies of the COI gene appear to be present within the genome of F. gordoni individuals, often containing multiple point mutations and/or length differences (=indels), which directly resulted in the messy sequences seen during the original project. In some cases, the sequences appeared to be pseudogenes because they often contained multiple stop codons. This study provides another cautionary tale about numts (nuclear copies of mitochondrial genes) and making sure they are accounted for when analyzing mitochondrial datasets in phylogeographic and systematic studies of freshwater crayfish.
A Night of Devastation: Natural and Life History Observations of an En-masse Single Night Collection of Fallicambarus devastator
ZACHARY W. DILLARD, Katie Scott, Nicole M. Sadecky, Luke K. Sadecky and Zachary J. Loughman
Due to their fossorial tendencies, primary burrowing crayfish are the most difficult behavioral group of crayfish to study in-situ. In this study we elucidated both natural and life history aspects and intraspecific behaviors from a collection of 111 individual Fallicambarus devastator collected in Angelina County, Texas, on the night of May 15th, 2015. We also intend to emphasize the importance of environmental cues on collection success. Significant amounts of precipitation occurred during the days prior to collection efforts, resulting in the majority of burrows to be flooded on the day of collection. All animals were collected either traversing the landscape or captured at the portal of their burrow. Behaviors observed included excavation, respiration, feeding, and interspecific interactions. The majority of animals observed were adults, with juveniles noticeably absent on the surface. Life history observations included evidence of synchronous alteration to reproductive form in males, as well as sexually-dependent chelae morphometric ratios. Fallicambarus devastator meristically displayed sexual dimorphism between form I male and female chelae, with form I chelae having longer propodus length and greater palm widths compared to the squamous and shorter chelae of females. Understanding the significance of studying these animals in favorable conditions is of paramount importance to the quality of future primary burrowing crayfish research.
Noninvasive Ground Penetrating Radar Investigation of Fallicambarus fodiens Subsurface Habitations
ZACHARIAH SEAMAN and Harvey Henson
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical technique that uses electromagnetic energy to image and identify subsurface objects and structures. This methodology has been used in areas such as geology, archaeology and engineering; however, recent research has applied these geophysical methods within the zoological community. Several studies have discussed the utility and benefit of using GPR to image wombat burrows, badger setts, gopher tortoise burrows, and pocket gopher tunnels. Our team sought to determine if below ground structures constructed by burrowing crayfish could be imaged noninvasively, despite their comparatively smaller burrow sizes. In previous research, imaging crayfish burrows were a challenge when data collection occurred in clay derived soils. However, given the proper timing of rainfall and ground water infiltration, imaging of crayfish related structures in a silt loam soil regardless of burrow size is possible. Our studied species, the Digger Crayfish (Fallicambarus fodiens), was located and observed in southern Illinois, and 3D GPR scans were conducted and collected. The preliminary data show various subsurface anomalies where crayfish burrows (i.e. crayfish chimneys) were observed above ground. These anomalies were interpreted as subsurface structures created by crayfish activity.
The Crayfish Morphology Database: Developing an Online Platform for Maintaining and Sharing Specimen Data and Images Used in the Descriptions of New Crayfish Species
JAMES W. FETZNER JR.
A new online database, and associated website, are under development with the goal of capturing, maintaining and sharing a standard suite of morphological measurement data and specimen images used in the description of new freshwater crayfish species. The website is password protected, allowing authors to secure their project data under a user account that only they can access. Once published, their data could become available to the community. The site consists of eight tabbed web forms that capture information on field collections, geographic locality, and specimen-level morphological measurements broken out by major feature (e.g., Carapace, Rostrum, Chela, Gonopod, and ‘Miscellaneous’). A tab is also provided to upload specimen images captured from a variety of views. The database currently is set up for capturing data on North American taxa, but if there is interest from the community, this could be expanded to include other crayfish groups from around the globe. Measurement data can be entered automatically into the web form via a digital caliper connected to a computer, or entered manually. A standard set of photographic images can also be captured and annotated, and then uploaded to the project, making them available for side-by-side viewing, allowing for multiple specimen comparisons of various morphological features. Features such as simple statistical analyses of the data (counts, frequencies, etc.) still need to be implemented, but could be generated and output as a summary report. The full project data can also be output to Excel format to allow for more detailed statistical analyses. Most of the data presented in new species descriptions are just estimates of the mean and/or the range of values measured. Thus, all of the underlying data captured for each individual specimen in a study are often lost to science, unless the specimens have been designated as types. Having a repository for these types of data will help to make comparisons among species a lot easier in the future and will reduce the duplication of effort when making comparisons among multiple species.
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